Solar light has been in the news since a long time for all the good reasons. It has left its mark in both developed and developing countries. Commonly used electric street lights consume more energy as it uses HD lamps and ultimately it affects our current bill. But in case of solar lights the scenario is completely different. These lamps use LED street lights, which consume less energy and require very low maintenance to keep running.
Nowadays we will find many things that works on solar power like the solar-powered buildings, vehicles, solar LED street lights, etc., which leads to the conservation of energy and help the environment stay protected. Modern solar street lights are designed in a way which will make our job much easier. Unlike traditional solar street lights, they are automatic and can switch on after the sunset and switches off after the sunrise.
This solar street light consists of the following parts:
- Solar panels
- LED light
- Rechargeable battery
- Interconnecting cables
To make a solar light work, solar panels is one of the most important parts. It is also known as the photovoltaic cell, which uses solar energy from the sun to convert it into electricity to run the application. These cells are of two types: poly crystalline and mono crystalline. Compared to the poly crystalline, the rate of mono crystalline conversion is higher. Solar panels use light energy from the sun to convert solar energy into electricity, which we can use it to run many applications.
LEDs are the lighting source used in solar lamps. It will provide us much brighter light by consuming less energy. Traditional solar lights which uses HPS fixture consumes more energy compared to modern street lights. The uniqueness of LEDs lights will differ as per the design of the lamp.
LED lights have many benefits of its own like the longevity, durability, eco-friendly and zero UV emissions. The output of the single LEDs is less than the other lamps giving out bright light than compact fluorescent and incandescent lamps.
Modern solar lights use rechargeable battery which is a type of electrical battery where electro mechanical reactions are reversible and so it is also called as secondary cell. In solar LED street lights, the battery stores the electricity from the solar panel during the day time and uses this energy in the night time. The capacity and lifetime of the battery is important as that will affect the backup power days of the lights. There are two types of batteries available. They are- lead acid battery and gel cell deep cycle battery. LA batteries are used mostly in traditional solar lights and it requires frequent maintenance.
A controller usually decides whether to switch on or switch off the lighting and charging. Modern controllers are programmable and they can decide the functioning of a light like the lighting, dimming and charging. It contains a battery charger, Led lamp driver, a secondary power supply, protection circuit, driver and a MCU. It also controls the battery from overcharging and under charging. The controller helps in receiving the power from solar panels and charging the battery during the day to supply the power to the LED street lights during the night.
A pole is necessary mostly for a solar street light to be fixed. Elements like fixtures, batteries and panels are mounted on top of the pole. The input operating voltage of a solar light is 12V DC nominal system voltage, and the light output at the height of 12 feet is min of 09 LUX (unit of luminance). The input power consumption is 7.2 watt (LED).
The cables are interconnected to the battery box, Led light and solar panel which are fixed on the top of the pole. It includes a PV module to the controller, and from controller to the battery and lamps. The size and lengths of the cable depends on the current which is being carried to the lights and the height of the pole.
Once all the above components are interconnected with one integrated system it completes the solar LED light system. This will help to use the sunlight to power the LED lamps and brighten our streets.
These solar LED street lights are applicable in the following areas:
- Neighborhood lighting
- Airport lighting
- Hospital parking
- Parks and playground parking
- Parking lot lighting
- Highway road way lighting
- Street lighting
- Security light
- Highway and ramp lighting
- Bridge lighting
- Residential lighting
- Industrial lighting
- Commercial lighting